Reading list | Athens

Long associated with the goddess Athene, Athens was established as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834. Ottoman rule had lasted from 1456 to 1689. With the Parthenon as a constant beacon, Athens is an easy city to navigate. To have a sense of the ancient city, the hills around it should be explored, too. Much was torn down by late 19th-century archaeologists in their passion to uncover the Classical past, but a few small Byzantine churches in the city centre remain.

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