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The great museums of Europe, in London, Paris and Berlin, have many treasures from Turkey, while a romantc taste for Orientalism furnished small museums and country houses across the continent and filled gardens with exotic flowers. Galleries and sale rooms reflect a continued taste for carpets and artworks from former Ottoman lands.
Souvenirs from a battling neighbour can be seen in Austria's museums, but it is a Mozart opera and coffee that have left a lasting legacy of the country's links with the Ottoman empire. Many Turks living here have become naturalised.
Turkey's strongest links in Western Europe have been with Germany, dating back to Ottoman times when German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann began uncovering the empire's classical heritage, and railway links were forged.
Turkey's links with Hungary date from the 16th and 17th centuries. Original Turkish baths in Budapest, based on hot springs, include the large Rudas Baths complex, but Pécs has the largest collection of Ottoman architecture.
Ireland and Turkey have a surprising history – aid shipments sent by the Ottomans during the Potato Famine, and a tradition of Turkish baths. The starting point is the fabulous Chester Beatty Library in the capital, Dublin.
The Roman empire spread across Asia Minor. But it is in Italy, in Ravenna and Venice, that some of the finest Byzantine architecture can be seen, and there are more Ottoman turbans in Venice than the Sublime Porte.
Turkey and the Netherlands recently celebrated 400 years of diplomatic relations, which brought to the West the tulip, angora wool, fabulous carpets and a cabinet of Ottoman curiosities to be seen in the Rijksmuseum.
In 1414 King Ladislaus Jagiello sent Poland's first envoys to Mehmed I in Edirne, and trade between the two countries has flourished since. Poland is the place to see some of the best surviving Ottoman tents.
Europe's westernmost country has a long Moorish legacy, seen in its castles built from the 8th to the 13th centuries, its Art Nouveau buildings and in its long tradition of colourful ceramic tile making.
A sparring partner since the time of Peter the Great, Turkey’s northern neighbour has always felt close, while Russian shipping in the Bosphorus and tourists on Turkey's coasts are ever present reminders of their ties. .
Catholic monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand drove out the Emirate of Granada in 1492 and demanded all non-Christians to convert or depart. The Arabic legacy survives in Spanish culture, not least in the art of azulejos, glazed ceramics. What is perhaps more fascinating, from Turkey's persepective, is the influence of the the Sephardic Jews welcomes by the Ottomans.
Switzerland is the broker in Turkish politics – as the place where the treaty establishing the modern Republic was signed (in Lausanne, pictured), and as the provider of a Civil Code, while the Berne Protocol settled Aegean claims.
From Turkey Merchants of the Levant Company and Ottoman servants to King George I to London's popular restaurants, the commercial, social and cultural links between the Britain and Turkey have grown over 400 years.
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